Comparability is hampered by differences in local practice, including whether psychiatrically ill offenders are under the authority of the prison administration. Ireland was neutral in World War II and continues its policy of military neutrality. [13] Most people born in New Zealand or one of the realm's external territories (Tokelau, the Ross Dependency, the Cook Islands and Niue) before 2006 are New Zealand citizens. New Zealand's full participation in a number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s.

The Gini Coefficient is based on the comparison of cumulative proportions of the population against cumulative proportions of income they receive, and it ranges between 0 in the case of perfect equality and 1 in the case of perfect inequality. [4] As of October 2020, the total population has risen to an estimated 5,092,990. [95][96], The academic year in New Zealand varies between institutions, but generally runs from late January until mid-December for primary and secondary schools and polytechnics, and from late February until mid-November for universities. World Health Organization. People born on or before 31 December 2005 acquired citizenship at birth (. [20] The life expectancy of a New Zealand child born in 2014-16 was 83.4 years for females, and 79.9 years for males,[3] which is among the highest in the world. [63], All major ethnic groups except European increased when compared with the 2013 census, in which 74 percent identified as European, 14.6 percent as Māori, 11.8 percent as Asian, and 7.4 percent of Pacific Islander origin. As a result, Māori was declared an official language in 1987. United Kingdom is approximately 243,610 sq km, while New Zealand is approximately 268,838 sq km, making New Zealand 10% larger than United Kingdom. [10] The name derives from the kiwi, a native flightless bird, which is the national symbol of New Zealand. Māori were discouraged from speaking their own language in schools and work places and it existed as a community language only in a few remote areas. [104][105], New Zealand's early economy was based on sealing, whaling, flax, gold, kauri gum, and native timber. [4], Farming is a major occupation in New Zealand, although more people are employed as sales assistants. [51][52] A common pathway for New Zealanders to move to the UK is through a job offer via the Tier 2 (General) visa, which grants a 3-year initial stay in the country and can later be extended with three more years. Source: The World Factbook, New Zealand Inland Revenue Department, The Office of the Revenue Commissioners. [6] Compared to the diversity of the population as a whole, the population aged under 18 years is considerably more ethnically diverse. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. [98], The predominant religion in New Zealand is Christianity.

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